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Focus on 3D Printing Materials (Polymeric Materials)

Date:2016-11-24 Hits:2922

Focus on 3D Printing Materials (Polymeric Materials)




As 3D printing manufacturing technology to change the traditional manufacturing industry, the way and principle of traditional manufacturing model is a supplement. At the same time, 3D printing material has become the main bottleneck restricting the development of 3D printing. It is also the key point and difficulty of 3D printing breakthrough innovation. Only by developing more new materials can we expand the application field of 3D printing technology. At present, 3D printing materials, including polymer materials, metal materials, ceramic materials and composite materials

 
3D Printing UAV (Engineering Materials)


As the saying goes: "Qiaomu difficult without straw." 3D printing for such a high-tech is the same reason. To a certain extent, printing materials is an indispensable material basis for printing technology, determines the final product attributes.
In the polar bear view, 3D print manufacturing technology is mainly composed of three key elements:
1. Products need to carry out accurate three-dimensional design, the use of computer-aided design (CAD) tools for all-round product design precision;
2. is the need for powerful molding equipment;
3 is the need to meet product performance and molding process materials.


 
3D Platinum Jewelry (Necklace)


We say that the above-mentioned 3D printing (by material) is relative to the reduction in terms of molding, and material molding refers to the use of separation technology to order out the excess material removed from the matrix, such as the traditional car, milling, grinding , Drilling, planing, EDM and laser cutting are all material reduction molding.

CNC lathe processing parts

The traditional molding process laser cutting, resulting in waste of materials


Compression molding refers to the main use of the plasticity of the material in a specific external force molding, the traditional forging, casting, powder metallurgy and other technologies are under pressure molding. Compression molding is mostly used in the blank stage of the model production, but also directly used for hand-piece molding examples, such as precision casting, precision forging and other net forming are pressure forming.


3D printing technology from the narrow sense, mainly refers to the material manufacturing technology, from the molding process point of view, 3D printing technology to break through the limitations of the traditional molding method, through rapid automatic molding system and computer data model, without any additional process mold manufacturing And mechanical processing will be able to create a variety of complex shape of the prototype, making the product design and production cycle greatly reduced production costs dropped significantly.

 

The world's first 3D print car, Philips 3D print razor

 

3D printing automatic rifles, Oracle 3D print replicas
3D printing technology is the real core of its print materials, 3D printing technology is the development of 3D printing important material basis, to a certain extent, the development of materials determines 3D printing can have a wider range of applications. 3D printing can be a good application of plastic and metal materials, mechanical properties, but this is currently restricting the development of 3D printing a major technical reasons. At present, 3D printing materials mainly include engineering plastics, photosensitive resin, rubber materials, metal materials and ceramic materials, in addition, color gypsum materials, artificial bone meal, cell biological raw materials and sugar and other food materials are also 3D printing The application.


Polar bear from the following materials will be analyzed, a brief introduction to the current status of the development of 3D printing materials and problems.


3D printing of polymer materials (engineering plastics) in aerospace applications

3D printing of unmanned aerial vehicles
3D printing UAV used in polymer materials
1, engineering plastics
Engineering plastics, refers to the industrial parts or housing materials used in industrial plastics, with high strength, impact resistance, heat resistance, high hardness and anti-aging, etc., the normal deformation temperature can be more than 90 ℃, can be machined , Painting and electroplating. Engineering Plastics is currently the most widely used class of 3D printing materials, common with acrylonitrile - butadiene - styrene copolymer (ABS), polyamide (PA), polycarbonate (PC), polyphenylsulfone (PPSF ), Polyether ether ketone (PEEK), and the like.


(1) ABS material
ABS material has good hot-melt and impact strength, is the preferred engineering plastics for the process of fused deposition forming 3D printing. At present, it is mainly made of ABS preformed wire and powder. The scope of application covers almost all daily necessities, engineering supplies and parts Machinery supplies. ABS material has many kinds of colors, such as ivory, white, black, dark gray, red, blue, rose red and so on. It has wide application in automobile, home appliance and electronic consumer goods. In recent years, not only in the field of application of ABS gradually expanded, and the performance of continuous improvement, with ABS strong adhesion, the strength of the modified by ABS, making it as a 3D printing materials in a wider range of applications.

ABS Material


Gears printed with ABS consumables


In 2014, the International Space Station with ABS plastic 3D printer for printing parts, the world's largest 3D printer materials company Stratasys developed the latest ABS material ABS-M30, designed for 3D printing design, mechanical properties than the traditional ABS material to improve 67%, thus expanding the scope of application of ABS.


(2) PA material
PA materials, although high strength, but also have a certain degree of flexibility, so you can directly use the 3D print manufacturing equipment parts. The use of 3D printing of PA carbon fiber composite plastic resin parts, has a high toughness, can be used for mechanical tools instead of metal tools. The world famous PA engineering plastics expert Solvay company, PA-based engineering plastics for 3D printing samples for the engine parts, door handle kit, brake pedal and so on. PA material instead of the traditional metal materials, and ultimately solve the problem of vehicle lightweight.


PA powder and its composite material

 
PA material fishing line


PA materials are widely used in the manufacture of fuel filters, fuel filters, tanks, traps, storage tanks, engine cylinder cover, radiator water tank, balance shaft gear. Can also be used in automotive electrical accessories, terminal and used to make a one-time lighter body, alkaline battery liner, motorcycle helmets, office machine shell and so on. In addition, it can be used as drive, control components.


(3) PC material
 
High transparent PC material sunshine board

 
3D printing blow molding mold


PC (polycarbonate) material can be regarded as a real thermoplastic material, with high strength, high temperature, impact resistance, bending and other characteristics, the strength of ABS material than 60% higher, can be used as the final parts and even super The application of strong engineering products. Bayer PC2605 developed by the German company can be used for bulletproof glass, resin lenses, headlights, astronauts helmet face mask, smart phone body, mechanical gears and other special-shaped components of 3D printing.

Medical grade PC material into the syringe


The three major applications of PC engineering plastics are glass assembly industry, automobile industry, electronics and electrical appliance industry, followed by industrial machinery parts, CD-ROM, packaging, computer and other office equipment, medical and health care, film, leisure and protective equipment. PC can be used as windows and doors, PC laminates are widely used in banks, embassies, detention centers and public places of protection windows for aircraft cabinets, lighting, industrial safety baffle and bullet-proof glass.


(4) PPSF material
PPSF material is the highest strength, heat resistance and corrosion resistance of all thermoplastic materials. Widely used in aerospace, transportation and medical industries. It is usually used as the final component.

PPSF material shell


PPSF has the highest heat resistance, toughness and chemical resistance, among the best in a variety of rapid prototyping engineering plastics, through the carbon fiber, graphite composite processing, PPSF material can show high strength, can be used for 3D Print the manufacture of the load-bearing products, as alternative metal, ceramic materials of choice.


(5) PEEK material
PEEK (PEEK) is a kind of high temperature, self-lubricating, easy processing and high mechanical strength and other excellent special engineering plastics, can be manufactured into various mechanical parts, such as automotive gears, oil screen, shift Start-up disk; aircraft engine parts, automatic washing machine runner, medical equipment parts and components.

PEEK materials are suitable for making human implants


PEEK has excellent wear resistance, biocompatibility, chemical stability and Young's modulus closest to human bone and other advantages, is an ideal artificial bone replacement material, suitable for long-term implantation of the human body. The 3D printing technology based on the principle of fused deposition is safe and convenient, no laser is needed, the post-processing is simple, and the biomimetic artificial bone is manufactured by combining with the PEEK material.


(6) EP material

Use EP material to print the phone shell of the shoe


EP (Elasto Plastic) Elastic Plastic is the latest development of Shapeways 3D printing of raw materials, it can avoid the use of ABS-printed items or wearable products can exist in the vulnerability of the problem. EP material is very soft, in shaping, the same with the ABS "layer by layer sintering" principle, but the printed product flexibility is quite good, easy to recover after deformation. This material can be used to make products such as 3D printing shoes, mobile phone shell and 3D printing clothing and other products.


(7) Ender material


Ender material is Stratasys company launched a new 3D printing material, it is an advanced anti-polypropylene material, to meet the needs of different fields of application. Endur material with high strength, good flexibility and high temperature performance, with its printed product surface quality, and dimensional stability, not easy to shrink. Endur has an excellent performance of imitation of polypropylene, can be used to print moving parts, meshing engagement parts and small boxes and containers.


3D printing of the Endur pen holder
(8) PVA (polyvinyl alcohol)
PVA or polyvinyl alcohol is a biodegradable synthetic polymer, its biggest feature is its water-soluble.

  As a new type of printing line applied to FDM, PVA is a good supporting material in the printing process.
At the end of the printing process, the support parts are completely soluble in water and are non-toxic and tasteless, so that they can be easily removed from the mold. Well-known global manufacturer of printing supplies Esum (Esun) PVC has been launched in the domestic and international water-soluble support materials have been unanimously praised. In the printing process, with the PLA supplies with perfect.




2. Bioplastics



3D printing bioplastics mainly include polylactic acid (PLA), polyethylene terephthalate-1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol ester (PETG), poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), poly-hydroxy pentane (PHBV), polybutylene succinate (PBS), polycaprolactone (PCL) and so on, and have good biodegradability.


(1) PLA material
PLA (Poly Lactic Acid), polylactic acid, may be the best use of 3D printing at the beginning of raw materials, with a variety of translucent color and gloss. As an environmentally friendly plastic, polylactic acid is biodegradable to active compost. It is extracted from cornstarch and sugar cane, not fossil fuels. Singapore Nanyang Technological University Tan.KH in the application of PLA manufacturing tissue engineering scaffold in the study, the use of biodegradable polymer materials to create a high porosity PLA tissue engineering scaffold, the stent through the organization analysis and found that it has growth ability.

PLA Material

PLA Material Printed object


PLA (polylactic acid) is a new kind of biobased and biodegradable material, which has good biodegradability. It can be completely degraded by natural microorganisms under certain conditions, and finally produce carbon dioxide and water, which will not pollute the environment. , Which is very beneficial to the protection of the environment, is recognized as environmentally friendly materials.


(2) PETG material
PETG material is a transparent plastic, is an amorphous copolyester, has good viscosity, transparency, color, chemical resistance, and resistance to stress whitening ability. Can be quickly thermoformed or extrusion blow molding. Viscosity than acrylic acid (acrylic) is good. Its products are highly transparent, excellent impact resistance, particularly suitable for forming thick-walled transparent products. Can be widely used in sheet metal, high-performance shrink film, bottle and profile and other markets.

PETG material
PETG is the use of sugarcane ethylene production of bio-based ethylene glycol as raw material synthesis of bio-based plastic. This material has good thermal molding, toughness and weatherability, thermal molding cycle is short, low temperature, high yield. PETG as a new type of 3D printing materials, both PLA and ABS advantages. In 3D printing, the shrinkage of the material is very small, and has good hydrophobicity, no need to store in a confined space. Because PETG shrinkage is low, low temperature, in the printing process almost no smell, making PETG in the field of 3D printing products with a broader development and application prospects.

PETG material for cosmetic bottles and caps, with glass-like clarity

 
Colorful PETG Print Case


PETG wire printing products out of light, without any heavy feeling. PETG wire itself has a good ductility, and it is also in the impact resistance is good. But also can be well adhered to a variety of construction platforms, with excellent adhesion layer. Of course, also has excellent aesthetic quality, because it will produce a print in the matte effect of gloss. Compared with other traditional ABS, this PETG wire provides a more excellent compression resistance. And print out the product do not have to worry about cracking this problem, the printing process also need not worry about will produce odor. But need to be reminded that this PETG wire is not easy to remove support, print a large area of the product is also easy to Qiao.


(3) PCL material
PCL (polycaprolactone) has good biodegradability, biocompatibility and non-toxicity, and is widely used as medical biodegradable materials and drug-controlled release system, can be used in tissue engineering has been as drug delivery system.

A toy printed with PCL material


PCL material is a degradable polyester, the melting point is low, only about 60 ℃, with most of the biological materials, it is often used for special purposes such as drug delivery equipment, suture agent, at the same time, PCL also has shape memory . In the 3D printing, because of its low melting point, it does not require very high printing temperature, so as to achieve the purpose of energy conservation. In the medical field, can be used to print heart stent.


 
3D printing PCL material support


In 3D printing, PCL is mainly used for FDM printers. Because of its low melting point, it does not require a high printing temperature. At the same time, but also because of its low melting point so that it can effectively avoid the operation of the burn. At present, efforts are being made to study the excellent characteristics of the low melting point of PCL, and it is desired to manufacture a child printer by virtue of this feature. In addition, because it has a shape memory characteristics, it makes the printed things have "memory", under certain conditions, you can make it back to the original set shape.


PCL materials can be used in the medical field, in 3D printing, the same can be used in the medical field, such as it used to print heart stent, the industry is also exploring its more possibilities.


(4) PHA material
PHA (polyhydroxyalkanoate) is a plant-based bio-based material that has biodegradable properties. Because it is non-toxic harmless, at present it is often used to make medical equipment, food packaging bags, children's toys, electronic products such as shell.

 

PHA wire


Recycling, because of its biodegradability, we only need to buried the same as buried in food waste, it can be natural degradation in the soil. Not only that, it also in fresh water and salt water can also be as quietly degraded in the soil, and will not leave any particles.
With PHAbulous Philaments wire, users no longer have to worry about printing bad 3D items that may adversely affect the environment. You can simply bury it in your backyard and within 60 days it will be fully biodegradable, The role of compost, so that your garden soil is more fertile. In addition, PHA is also easily biodegradable in the sea.








3. Photosensitive resin
Light-cured resin, also known as photosensitive resin, is a light exposure, in a short period of time the rapid physical and chemical changes, and then cross-linked curing oligomers. Light-cured composite resin is commonly used in stomatology filling, repair materials, because of its color and luster, has a certain compressive strength, and therefore plays an important role in clinical applications for various types of anterior teeth defects and holes Repair can achieve satisfactory results.

Photosensitive resin material

The photosensitive resin material prints out a semi-transparent matte state

3D print radiator fan and earbud cover


The photosensitive resin is made of polymer monomer and prepolymer group because of good fluidity and instant light curing characteristics, making liquid photosensitive resin as 3D printing supplies for high-precision printing products, the preferred material. Photosensitive resin curing speed, excellent surface dry performance, after forming the product appearance is smooth, transparent or translucent frosted state can occur. The photosensitive resin has the characteristics of low odor and low stimulating component, and is very suitable for personal desktop 3D printing system.


4. Polymer gel

Seaweed can also be used as a 3D printing material

Mesh polymer gel products: water gel paste paste


Polymer gel with good intelligence, sodium alginate, cellulose, animal and vegetable gum, peptone, polyacrylic acid and other polymer gel material for 3D printing, in a certain temperature and initiator, the role of cross-linking agent After polymerization, the formation of special network polymer gel products. Such as by the ionic strength, temperature, electric field and chemical changes, the volume of gel will also be a corresponding change for the shape memory material. Gel swelling or contraction of the volume change, for sensing materials; gel mesh controllable, can be used for intelligent drug release materials.